l-Tyrosine - Tyrosine is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body from another amino acid called phenylalanine. It’s found in many foods, especially in cheese, where it was first discovered.Supplementing with Tyrosine is thought to increase levels of the neurotransmitter’s dopamine, adrenaline, and norepinephrine. By increasing these neurotransmitters, it may help improve memory and performance. Several studies show that tyrosine improves memory under stressful conditions, such as cold-stress, multitasking, or sleep deprivation.
Lions Mane – Lions Mane known in Latin as Hericium erinaceus, is a mushroom that is native to North America, Europe, and Asia. Research shows that lion’s mane possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunostimulating properties in cells, animals, and humans. Lion’s mane contains a broad range of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, including erinacines and hericenones, known for their cognitive health benefits. These important nootropic compounds can stimulate the synthesis of NGF (nerve growth factor) and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), chemicals that have potent biological activity. NGF and BDNF help to promote the growth, repair, and normal functioning of neurons, the nerve cells that are the building blocks of our brain and nervous system. These factors are necessary for neuroplasticity, the generation of new neural pathways in the brain following injury or illness.
Several research studies have concluded that lion’s mane supplementation supports cognitive function and nerve regeneration in lab animals. Dubbed a “smart mushroom” because of its support for cognitive function and neurological health. An improvement of mild cognitive impairment in humans was also found in research published in Phytotherapy Research after eight to 16 weeks of lion’s mane supplementation.
Taurine- Taurine, is an amino acid that is important in several of the body's metabolic processes. Taurine is found naturally in meat, fish, dairy products and human milk, and it's also available as a dietary supplement. While research is mixed, some studies suggest that taurine supplementation might improve athletic performance. Other studies suggest that taurine combined with caffeine improves mental performance.
Taurine can also help brain health by addressing GABA imbalances. Taurine exhibits impressive neuroprotective capabilities and can help protect against age-related mental decline. One of the ways it does this is by increasing the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This protein acts like fertilizer in your brain, stimulating the growth of new brain cells. Taurine especially promotes the formation of new brain cells in the hippocampus, the part of the brain considered its memory center. It also has shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidepressant properties.
Bacopa- Bacopa is a plant that has been used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Bacopa is traditionally used for various ailments but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Bacopa is commonly used for Alzheimer disease, memory and thinking skills (cognitive function), anxiety, and ADHD. Bacopa might increase certain brain chemicals that are involved in thinking, learning, and memory. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated Bacopas nootropic utility in humans.
Alpha GPC - Alpha-GPC (Alpha-glycerophosphocholine or sometimes just glycerophosphocholine) is a choline-containing supplement that, although found in a variety of food products that are also rich in choline, appears to be pharmacologically active at higher doses. Alpha-GPC administration increases the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and facilitates learning and memory. Oral supplementation of alpha-GPC is of interest for nootropic purposes, as it appears to have cognitive-enhancing properties, and may attenuate the rate of cognitive decline in the elderly. Using Alpha-GPC and caffeine in conjunction has been shown to improve mental and physical performance. In athletes, Alpha-GPC supplementation prevents exercise-induced reductions in choline levels, increases endurance performance and growth hormone secretion. A recent study concluded that Alpha-GPC seemed to be beneficial for certain physical and mental performance tasks.
Green Tea Extract - Green tea extract is a great source of antioxidants. These have been credited with a range of health benefits — from promoting heart, liver, and brain health to improving your skin and even reducing the risk of cancer The antioxidants in green tea extract, especially EGCG, have been shown to protect brain cells from oxidative stress (13Trusted Source). This protection can help reduce brain damage that could lead to mental decline and brain diseases like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and dementia. Green tea extract is rich in catechins, and it contains a decent amount of caffeine, which is why at a 200mg dosage it yields about 50% caffeine or 100mg in FOCUS.
Bioperine - Black pepper extract is a standardized extract, prepared from the dried fruits of Piper nigrum (black pepper) and contains a minimum of 95% Piperine. It is clinically studied for its ability to enhance the bioavailability of the nutrients. It has been well recognized as a bioavailability enhancer for nearly two decades, and it is the only source of black pepper to have undergone clinical studies in the United States and several other countries, which substantiate its safety and efficacy for nutritional use.
Huperzine A – Huperzine A is a substance extracted from a plant called Chinese club moss (Huperzia serrata). Sold as a dietary supplement, huperzine A has been found to act as a cholinesterase inhibitor, a type of medicine used to prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine (a chemical essential to learning and memory). Huperzine A is also said to enhance learning and memory and to protect against age-related cognitive decline. In addition, huperzine A is sometimes used to boost energy, increase alertness, fight depression, and aid in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disorder that affects the muscles. However, the research is limited. Some studies have found evidence that huperzine A might significantly improve cognitive performance in people with Alzheimer's disease. Another systematic review found that huperzine A did have a beneficial effect on cognitive function. Huperzine-A appears to be a relatively safe compound from animal studies of toxicity and studies in humans showing no side-effects at dosages routinely supplemented with.